Patent 4970642

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Patent for Memory Access

Note: terminals with a High value are a binary 1 and Low is a binary 0.

Full Patent

Original Patent

United States Patent Number: 4970642

AN APPARATUS FOR ACCESSING A MEMORY


Abstract

In an apparatus for controlling the access of a memory, a memory is accessed in accordance with a physical address composed of a predetermined number of bits larger than another predetermined number of which a logical address is composed. For the purpose, a logical address region is equally divided by the number of mapping registers from which one register is selected in accordance with a content of a logical address. A physical address region is divided to provide a plurality of blocks from which one block is selected in accordance with a content of the selected one register.


Field of the Invention

The invention relates to an apparatus for controlling the access of a memory, and more particularly to an apparatus for controlling the access of a memory in which a memory is accessed in accordance with a physical address of bits larger in number than bits for composing a logical address in a CPU.


Background of the Invention

In one of conventional apparatus for accessing a memory, a memory is accessed in accordance with a physical address comprising more than 16 bits by the control of a 16 bit CPU. Consequently, a memory of a capacity which can not be normally accessed in accordance with an address signal of 16 bits, for instance, a memory of 2M bits is possible to be accessed in accordance with the 16 bit address signal under program control.

According to the conventional apparatus for accessing of a memory, however, a memory of a capacity larger than a capacity which is accessed in accordance with an address signal composed of a predetermined number of bits must be accessed by the control of a predetermined program. For the reason, there is a disadvantage that a structure of a program becomes complicated to enable memory access outside a block defined by the address signal.


Summary of the Invention

Accordingly, it is an object of the invention to provide an apparatus for accessing a memory space which is larger than a capacity which is accessed in accordance with an address signal composed of a predetermined number of bits in accordance with the address signal without complicating program structure.

According to the invention, an apparatus for accessing a memory includes a first memory having a first predetermined physical address region which is divided into a plurality of blocks. Each of the blocks has a second predetermined physical address region. A second memory has a predetermined logic address region which is n times that of the second predetermined physical address region and which is smaller than that of the first predetermined physical address region, where in is an integer equal to or greater than 2. A plurality of mapping registers each store a respective address offset value under program control. Means is provided for producing a logic address signal having a bit length which is accessible to the second memory, and which is not accessible to the first memory. Finally, means is provided for controlling access of the first memory to designate one of the blocks of the first memory by storing an address offset value in a respective one of the plural mapping registers. The contents of one of the blocks of the first memory are stored in a corresponding region of the predetermined logic address region which is determined by the content of a respective one of the plural mapping registers. The corresponding region of the predetermined logic address region is accessed in the second memory by the logic address signal.


Description of Preferred Embodiments

In [Figure 1], there is shown an apparatus for displaying a color image to which an apparatus for controlling the access of a memory according to the invention is applied In the apparatus for controlling the access of a memory, a CPU (1) performs a predetermined control in accordance with a program stored in ROM (5) so that data, arithmetical results etc. are stored into a RAM (6) temporarily. A Video Display Controller (2) is provided therein to supply a Video Color Encoder (3) with video data of a story, for instance, for a so-called television game read from a VRAM (7) in accordance with a control of the CPU (1) which deciphers a program for the television game stored in the ROM (5). The Video Color Encoder (3) to which the video data are supplied produces RGB analog signals obtained in accordance with color data stored therein, or produces video color signal including a luminance signal and color difference signals obtained in accordance with the color data. Further, a Programmable Sound Generator (4) is provided therein to produce analog sound signals as left and right stereo sounds in accordance with a content of the ROM (5) which is supplied through the CPU (1) thereto. The video color signal produced in the Video Color Encoder (3) is supplied through an interface (8) to a receiving circuit of a video display (9) as a composite signal, and the RGB analog signal is supplied through an interface (10) directly to a video display (9) which functions as an exclusive use monitor means. On the other hand, the left and right analog sound signals are supplied through amplifiers 11a and 11b to speakers 12a and 12b to produce sounds.

[Figure 1] is a block diagram showing an apparatus for displaying a color image in which an apparatus for controlling the access of a memory is included

[Figure 2] shows the CPU (1) and the Programmable Sound Generator (4) as encircled by a dotted line in [Figure 1]. The CPU (1) in which an apparatus for controlling a transfer of data in the embodiment is included and comprises an instruction register (20), an instruction decoder (21), a bus interface register (22), an Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) (23), a set of registers (24), a Mapping Register (25), a chip enable decoder (26), a timing and control unit (27), an input and output port (28), a Timer (29), an interrupt request register (30), an interrupt disable register (31), and so on. These units will be explained as follows.

  1. instruction register (20)

    The register (20) is loaded with an instruction code at an instruction fetch cycle.


  2. instruction decoder (21)

    The decoder (21) performs a sequential operation determined in accordance with an output of the instruction register (20), an interrupt input from a peripheral circuit or a reset input, and further performs a control of a branch command changing a flow of a program in accordance with informations of a status register described later.


  3. bus interface register (22)

    The register (22) controls a transfer of data among a B-bus (32), a U-bus (33) and an external bus D0 to D7. The ALU (23) and the set of registers (24) are connected by the B-bus (22) and the U-bus (33), and is connected to internal peripheral circuits. Further, a L-bus (34) for transferring lower 8 bits of a logical address and a H-bus (35) for transferring upper 8 bits of the logical address are provided. A logical address low register (48) is connected to the L-bus (34), and a logical address high register (49) is connected to the H-bus (35).


  4. ALU (23)

    The ALU (23) is provided with an A register (36) and a B register (37), and performs all of arithmetic and logic operation. The A and B registers (36 and 37) are loaded with one or two data so that an arithmetic operation is performed in accordance with a control signal of the instruction decoder (21) to supply one of the b, L and H-buses (32, 34 and 35) with a result of the arithmetic operation.


  5. set of registers (24)

    The set of registers (24) comprises following 10 registers each being of 8 bits.

    1. Accumulator (38)

      The Accumulator (38) is a wide use register which plays the most important role in an arithmetic and logic operation to be conducted when a memory arithmetic flag T of a status register described later is 0. Data thereof is supplied to an input of the ALU (23), and a result of the arithmetic is stored therein. The Accumulator (38) is also used for a transfer of data between memories and between a memory and a peripheral circuit, and for a count of a data block length when a block transfer of data is performed. A lower data of the length are stored therein after data stored therein at the very moment are evacuated into a stack region of the RAM (6).


    2. X and Y registers (39 and 40)

      The registers (39 and 40) are wide use registers which are mainly used for an index addressing. The X register (39) is used for a designation of an address on page 0 of a memory which is a destination of an arithmetic operation, and for a storage of lower data of a source address after data stored therein at the very moment are evacuated into a stack region of the RAM (6) when a block transfer of data is performed. On the other hand, the Y register (40) stores lower data of a destination address after data stored therein at the very moment are evacuated into a stack region of the RAM (6) when a block transfer of data is performed.


    3. program counters (41 and 42)

      An up counter of 16 bits is composed of the Program Counter (41) of upper 8 bits and the Program Counter (42) of lower 8 bits. The up counter is automatically incremented in accordance with the conduct of a command to designate an address of a command or operand to be next conducted. Contents of the counters (41 and 42) are evacuated into a stack region of the RAM (6) in a case where a command of subroutine is conducted, and an interrupt is produced, or after an interruption command of a software is conducted.


    4. Stack Pointer (43)

      The Stack Pointer (43) designates lower 8 bits of the highest address on a stack region of the RAM (6), and is decremented after the pushing of data into the stack region and incremented before the pulling of the data from the stack region. For instance, 256 bytes of addresses 0x2100 to 0x21FF are allocated to the stack region in a logical address.


    5. source high register (45), destination high register (46), and length high register (47).

      These registers function in case of a command of a block transfer. The source high register (45) provides an upper byte of a source address to designate the source address together with a content of the X register (39). The destination high register (46) provides an upper byte of a destination address to designate the destination address together with a content of the Y register (40). The length high register (47) provides upper 8 bits for a down counter together with a content of the Accumulator (38) so that a length of a block transfer is counted by a byte unit.

  6. Mapping Register (25)

    The Mapping Register (25) is composed of 8 registers each being of 8 bits to convert a logical address of 16 bits to a physical address of 21 bits, and is selected by upper 3 bits of the H-bus (35).

  7. chip enable decoder (26)

    The chip enable decoder (26) provides chip enable outputs for following peripheral circuits by decoding upper 11 bits of a physical address.

    1. a chip enable for the RAM (6) . . . CER

    2. a chip enable for the Video Display Controller (2) . . . CE7

    3. a chip enable for the Video Color Encoder (3) . . . CEK

    4. a chip enable for the Programmable Sound Generator (4) . . . CEP

    5. a chip enable for the Timer (29) . . . CET

    6. a chip enable for the input and output port . . . CEIO

    7. a chip enable for the interrupt request register (30) and the interrupt disable register (31) . . . CECG

  8. timing and control unit (27)

    The unit (27) is connected to following terminals.

    1. RD terminal

      A read timing signal is supplied through the RD terminal at a reading cycle.

    2. WR terminal

      A write timing signal is supplied through the WR terminal at a writing cycle.

    3. SYNC terminal

      A synchronous signal of High is supplied through the SYNC terminal at an instruction fetch cycle, that of Low is supplied therethrough at a system reset timing.

    4. NMI terminal

      A non-maskable interrupt is produced when NMI input signal is supplied through the NMI terminal. A sub-routine call is conducted by reading lower address from the logical address 0xFFFC and upper address from the logical address 0xFFFD when a command which is conducted in a program is completed.

    5. IRQ1 and IRQ2 terminals

      A sub-routine call is conducted by reading lower address from the logical address 0xFFF8 and upper address from the logical address 0xFFF9 when IRQ1 input becomes Low in a case where a corresponding bit in the interrupt disable register (31) is 0, and a corresponding bit in the Status Register (44) is 0. At this time, the corresponding bit is set in the Status Register (44), and other corresponding bits are reset therein.

      A sub-routine call is conducted by reading lower address from the logical address 0xFFF6 and upper address from the logical address 0xFFF7 when IRQ2 input becomes Low in a case where a corresponding bit in the interrupt disable register (31) is 0, and a corresponding bit in the Status Register (44) is 0. At this time, the corresponding bit is set in the Status Register (44), and other corresponding bits are reset therein.

    6. RESET terminal

      A program is started by reading lower address from the physical address 0x001FFE and upper address from the physical address 0x001FFF when a RESET input becomes Low.

    7. RDY terminal

      The CPU (1) is started to operate when a RDY input is changed from Low to High.

    8. SX terminal

      A complementary signal of a system clock signal is supplied through the SX terminal.

    9. OSC1 terminal

      An external clock signal is input through the OSC1 terminal.

    10. EA1, EA2 and EA3 terminals

      These are input terminals for a test of the CPU (1).

    11. HSM terminal

      A speed signal of High is supplied through the HSM terminal in case of a high speed mode of 21.47727 MHz/3, and that of Low is supplied therethrough in case of a low speed mode of 21.47727 MHz/12.

  9. input and output port (28)

    The input and output port (28) is connected to following terminals.

    1. K0 to K7 terminals

      The terminals are input ports from which data are written in accordance with the conduct of a reading cycle in regard to the physical addresses 0x1FF000 to 0x1FF3FF.

    2. 00 to 07 terminals

      The terminals are output ports with latches to which data are supplied in accordance with the conduct of a writing cycle in regard to the physical addresses 0x1FF000 to 0x1FF3FF.

  10. Timer (29)

    The Timer (29) is connected to a test input terminal EAT for the CPU (1) and provides a timer signal through the U-bus thereto.

  11. interrupt request register (30)

    The register (30) is of 8 bits among which 5 bits are not used, while the remaining 2 bits are 1 to show the IRQ1 and IRQ2 terminals Low and the remaining 1 bit is 1 to show a timer interrupt caused. The register (30) is only used for read.

  12. interrupt disable register (31)

    The register (31) is of 8 bits among which 5 bits are not used, while the remaining 2 bits are 0 to make an interrupt request of the IRQ1 and IRQ2 terminals disable, and the remaining one is 0 to make an interrupt request disable in accordance with the timer interrupt signal.

[Figure 2] is a block diagram showing an apparatus for controlling the access of a memory in an embodiment according to the invention

In [Figure 3], there is shown the aforementioned Mapping Register (25) comprising 8 registers MPR0 to MPR7 each being of 8 bits, and connected through the B-bus (32) to an input output controller (50) and through an output selector (51) to the output terminals A13 to A20. The output selector (51) selects one register from the 8 registers MPR0 to MPR7 of the Mapping Register (25) in accordance with upper 3 bits H5 to H7 of upper data of a logical address on the H-bus (35).

[Figure 3] is a block diagram showing a mapping register circuit in an apparatus for controlling the access of a memory in the embodiment

[Figure 4] shows a relation between the upper 3 bits H5 to H7 and one register selected from the 8 registers MPR0 to MPR7. If it is assumed that the upper 3 bits H5 to H7 are 010, the register MPR2 is selected from the 8 registers MPR0 to MPR7. Data are read from the Mapping Register (25) by a command TMAi where i is an integer selected from 0 to 7. For instance, data are read from the register MPR2 to be transferred through the B-bus (32) to the Accumulator (38) in accordance with a command TMA2. On the other hand, data are written into the Mapping Register (25) by a command TAMi where i is an integer selected from 0 to 7. For instance, data are transferred to be written into the register MPR0 from the Accumulator (38) by a command TAM0. The commands TMAi and TAMi are composed of two byte respectively, and lower byte thereof includes a bit of 1 corresponding in a bit number to a register number which is selected from the 8 registers MPR0 to MPR7 and remaining 7 bits of 0. When one of the 8 registers MPR0 to MPR7 is selected in accordance with upper 3 bits of the H-bus (35), a content of the selected register is supplied through the output terminals A13 to A20 to a following stage so that a physical address of 21 bit is obtained together with a content of the logical address low register (48) to be supplied through the output terminals A0 to A7 thereto, and lower 5 bits of the logical address high register (49) to be supplied through the output terminals A8 to A12 thereto. When the most significant bit A20 of a physical address A0 to A20 is 1, a command by which data designated in accordance with the physical address A0 to A20 are immediate-transferred to the Video Display Controller (2) is conducted. The command includes ST0, ST1 and ST2 by which codes are produced on A0 and A1 of the address bus at a write cycle as shown in [Figure 6]. The command is set in the instruction register (20).

In operation, lower data of a logical address are set in the logic address low register (48), and lower 5 bits of upper data of the logical address are set in the logical address high register (49). Here, it is assumed that address data are set in the 8 registers MPR0 to MPR7 of the Mapping Register (25) respectively. When upper 3 bits of upper data of the logical address, that is to say, upper 3 bits H5 to H7 of the H-bus (35) are 001, the register MPR1 is selected so that a content 0xF8 of the register MPR1 is supplied through the output terminals A13 to A20 to the following stage. These output signals are combined with output signals of the output terminals A8 to A12 and A0 to A7 to produce a physical address A0 to A20. Then, the chip enable decoder (26) decodes upper 11 bits A10 to A20 of the physical address A0 to A20 to produce a chip enable signal CER of 0 by which a data memory is enabled.

[Figure 4] is an explanatory diagram showing a mapping register selection code when a physical address is produced in an apparatus for controlling the access of a memory in the embodiment
[Figure 5] is an explanatory diagram showing a mapping register selection code when data are read from a mapping register and written thereinto in an apparatus for controlling the access of a memory in the embodiment
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[Figure 6] is an explanatory diagram showing an immediate transfer code for a video display controller in the apparatus for displaying a color image

[Figure 7] shows a relation between a logical address of the CPU (1) and a physical address of the RAM (6) wherein a block 0xF8 of a physical address region having 2M bytes is allocated in accordance with a content 0xF8 of the selected register MPR1 in a case where a logic address of 16 bits on the L and H-buses (34 and 35) corresponds to one address selected from addresses 0x2000 to 0x3FFF of a logical address region having 64K bytes as indicated by hatching lines therein. Thus, a memory of 2M bytes in which an address signal of 21 bits is required for the access thereof can be accessed by an address signal of 16 bits. At this time, data at a corresponding address of a memory are immediate-transferred to a Video Display Controller (2) in a case where lower 2 bits A0 and A1 of the physical address are of a content as shown in [Figure 6].

[Figure 7] is an explanatory diagram showing a relation between logical and physical address regions in an apparatus for controlling the access of a memory in the embodiment

[Figure 8] shows a physical address region of the RAM (6) to which a chip enable signal CER is allocated. The chip enable signal CER is produced in accordance with a content of upper 11 bits A10 to A20 of a physical address A0 to A20 which is decoded in the chip enable decoder (26). For instance, the chip enable signal CER is allocated to a region of physical addresses 0x1F0000 to 0x1F7FFF in which zero page and stack regions are existed in a case where a content of the selected register MPR1 is 0xF8. The zero page and stack regions are of a region to which contents of the Accumulator (38), the X register (39), and the Y register (40) are evacuated temporarily.

[Figure 8] is an explanatory diagram showing an allocation of a chip enable signal to a physical address region in an apparatus for controlling the access of a memory in the embodiment.

Claims

Although the invention has been described with respect to specific embodiment for complete and clear disclosure, the appended claims are not to thus limited but are to be construed as embodying all modification and alternative constructions that may occur to one skilled in the art which fairly fall within the basic teaching herein set forth.

What is claimed is:

  1. An apparatus for accessing a memory, comprising:
    • a first memory having a first predetermined physical address region which is divided into plural blocks, each of said plural blocks having a second predetermined physical address region
    • a second memory having a predetermined logic address region which is n times of said second predetermined physical address region and is smaller than said first predetermined physical address region, wherein n is an integer equal to or larger than two; means for determining an address offset value which is stored in one of plural mapping registers
    • means for producing a logic address signal having a bit length which is accessible to said second memory, and is not accessible to said first memory
    • means for controlling an access of said first memory to designate one of said blocks of said first memory by said address offset value stored in a selected one of said plural mapping registers wherein contents of said one of said blocks of said first memory are stored in a corresponding region of said predetermined logic address region which is determined by said content of said selected one of said plural mapping registers, and said corresponding region of said predetermined logic address region is accessed in said second memory by said logic address signal.
  2. An apparatus for accessing a memory, according to claim 1, wherein said selected one of said plural mapping registers is selected by predetermined bits of said logic address signal.
  3. An apparatus for accessing a memory, according to claim 1, wherein a physical address signal is obtained by said content of said one of said plural mapping registers and said logic address signal, data at an address of said first memory which is designated by said physical address signal are immediate-transferred to a video display controller dependent on predetermined bits of said physical address signal.